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The Java Language Specification - The Java Language Specification 1st

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A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

E

E field
of class Math, 518
Eco, Umberto, 111
Eisenhower, Dwight D., 364
element
elementAt method, of class Vector, 656
elementCount field, of class Vector, 655
elementData field, of class Vector, 655
elements method
of class Dictionary, 634
of class Hashtable, 637
of class Vector, 659
NoSuchElementException class, 664
type, arrays, term definition, 194
Ellis, Margaret A., 6
Elliston, Shirley, 111
empty method
of class Stack, 662
EmptyStackException class, 663
endsWith method
of class String, 540
ensureCapacity method
of class StringBuffer, 551
of class Vector, 658
entity
declared, list of, 78
enumerate method
of class Thread, 600
of class ThreadGroup, 609 Enumeration interface, 617

Enumeration interface
eolIsSignificant method
of class StreamTokenizer, 717
Epictetus, 186
equals method
of class BitSet, 619
of class Boolean, 470
of class Character, 473
of class Date, 626
of class Double, 511
of class File, 754
of class Float, 505
of class Integer, 489
of class Long, 496
of class Object, 459
of class String, 535
equalsIgnoreCase method
of class String, 537
errors
See also binary, compatibility; compile-time errors; exceptions
AbstractMethodError class, 611
ClassCircularityError class, 611
ClassFormatError class, 611
err field
of class FileNameDescriptor, 760
of class System, 580
Error class, 211, 611
unchecked exceptions as subclass of, 163
ExceptionInInitializerError class, 611, 614
IllegalAccessError class, 611
IncompatibleClassChangeError class, 611
InstantiationError class, 611
InternalError class, 611
linking, 211, 220
LinkageError class, 611
preparation, 221
resolution, 221
verification, 220
loading, 211, 219
NoClassDefFoundError class, 611
NoSuchFieldError class, 611
NoSuchMethodError class, 611
OutOfMemoryError class, 611
semantic, exceptions as mechanism for signaling, 201
standard, reasons for, 203
hierarchical relationships list, 611
types, run-time, 303
unchecked, reasons for, 203
UnknownError class, 611
errors
UnsatisfiedLinkError class, 611
VerifyError class, 611
virtual machine, 212
escapes
sequences, for character and string literals, 26
Unicode, specification, 12
evaluation
See also execution; initialization; scope
evaluated, term definition, 301
expressions
additive operators, 355
additive operators for numeric types, 358
array access, 341
array assignment, 370
array creation, 315
assignment operators, 369
bitwise binary operators, 365
bitwise complement, 349
boolean equality operators, 364
boolean logical operators, 365
cast, 350
compound assignment operators, 375
conditional operator, 367
conditional-and operator, 366
conditional-or operator, 366
division, 352
equality operators, 362
field access, 319
instance creation, 314
integer bitwise operators, 365
logical binary operators, 365
logical complement, 349
method invocation, 323
method invocation, order of, 333
multiplication, 351
multiplicative operators, 351
numeric comparison, 361
numeric equality operators, 363
parenthesized, 313
postfix, 344
pre-decrement, 348
pre-increment, 347
primary, 311
reference equality operators, 364
relational operators, 360
remainder, 353
shift operators, 359
simple assignment operators, 369
string concatenation, 355
superclass access, 322
type comparison, 361
evaluation
expressions
unary minus, 349
unary operators, 346
unary plus, 348
literals, 312
order
arguments left-to-right, 304
binary operators, 305
compound assignment, 305
left-hand operand first, 305
left-to-right, 309
operands before operators, 307
operands evaluated before operations, 307
parameters, 303
parentheses and precedence respected, 308
result of, term definition, 301
events
See also methods
execution order of, constraints on relationships among, 403
evolution
See also binary, compatibility; reuse
of classes, binary compatibility considerations, 242
of interfaces, binary compatibility considerations, 259
of packages, binary compatibility considerations, 242
examples
access control, 100
classes, 101
fields, methods, and constructors
default, 102
private, 105
protected, 104
public, 103
arrays, 196
classes, public and non-public, 101
declarations
fields, 151
import, 123
method, 168
default-access methods, constructors and fields, 102
exceptions, 206
fields
interface, ambiguous inherited, 188
interface, multiply inherited, 188
multiply inherited, 153
reinheritance of, 154
examples
hiding, 168
of variables
class, 151
instance, 152
vs. overriding, 170
HTML generation from documentation comments, 423
inheritance
accessing members of inaccessible classes, 142
class members, 139
default access, 140
public, protected, and private access, 141
multiple, with superinterfaces, 137
with default access, 140
with private, 141
with protected, 141
with public, 141
methods
abstract declarations, 190
invocation of hidden class, 171
private, 105
protected, 104
public, 103
overloading, 168
overriding, 168
incorrect, 169
because of throws, 174
large example, 172
vs. hiding, 170
exceptions
See also binary, compatibility; compile-time errors; errors; Throwable class
ArithmeticException class, 611
ArrayStoreException class, 611
asynchronous, causes and handling of, 205
caller, determination of, 204
causes of, 202
(chapter), 201
checked
compile-time checking for handlers of, 203
constructors, declaring with throws clause in method declarations, 163
defining new exception classes as, 208
methods, declaring with throws clause in method declarations, 163
standard, 210
ClassCastException class, 611
classes
Error, 203, 211
exceptions
classes
Exception, 208
hierarchical relationships list, 611
RuntimeException, 203, 208
RuntimeException, unchecked exceptions found in, 164
Throwable, 201, 202
ClassNotFoundException class, 611
CloneNotSupportedException class, 611
EmptyStackException class, 663
example, 206
Exception class, 611
@exception tag, specification, 422
ExceptionInInitializerError class, 611, 614
handlers
compile-time checking, 203
how established, 201
in try statements, 291
handling of, 204
asynchronous, 205
run-time testing, 303
hierarchy, 208
IllegalAccessException class, 611
IllegalArgumentException class, 611
IllegalThreadStateException class, 611
IndexOutOfBoundsException class, 611
InstantiationException class, 611
integer divide by zero, 32
InterruptedException class, 611
NegativeArraySizeException class, 611
never thrown for
assignment conversions, 61
information loss due to narrowing primitive conversions, 57
information loss due to widening primitive conversions, 55
widening reference conversions, 59
NoSuchElementException class, 664
NoSuchMethodException class, 611
NullPointerException class, 611
NumberFormatException class, 611
parameters
See also variables
declaration, 290
description, 45
initial value, 46
scope, 291, 82
precise, 205
exceptions
standard, 208
NegativeArraySizeException, 304, 316
RuntimeException, 371
standard (checked)
ClassNotFoundException, meaning, 210
CloneNotSupportedException, meaning, 210, 460
EOFException
declaration, 762
meaning, 210
Exception, 208
FileNotFoundException, 684, 722
declaration, 763
meaning, 210
IllegalAccessException, meaning, 210
InstantiationException, 131
meaning, 210
InterruptedException, 562, 598, 600, 601
meaning, 210
InterruptedIOException
declaration, 764
meaning, 210
IOException, 564, 565, 668, 669, 670, 671, 672, 675, 676, 677, 678, 680, 681, 682, 683, 685, 686, 687, 688, 694, 695, 696, 697, 698, 700, 701, 703, 704, 705, 706, 707, 708, 709, 710, 711, 717, 720, 721, 723, 724, 725, 726, 729, 730, 731, 733, 735, 736, 737, 744, 745, 746, 747, 748, 749, 750, 751
declaration, 761
meaning, 210
MalformedURLException, meaning, 211
ProtocolException, meaning, 211
SocketException, meaning, 211
UnknownHostException, meaning, 211
UnknownServiceException, meaning, 211
UnsatisfiedLinkException, 222
UTFDataFormatException
declaration, 765
meaning, 210
standard (errors)
AbstractMethodError, 254, 255
meaning, 212, 221
ClassCircularityError, 134, 243
meaning, 212, 219
exceptions
standard (errors)
ClassFormatError, 559
meaning, 212, 219
Error, 211
ExceptionInInitializerError, 227, 288
meaning, 212
IllegalAccessError, 243, 259, 336
meaning, 212, 221
IncompatibleClassChangeError, 251, 253, 256, 334, 336
meaning, 212, 221
InstantiationError, meaning, 212, 222
InternalError, meaning, 212
LinkageError, 219, 220
loading and linkage, 211
NoClassDefFoundError, 226
meaning, 212, 219
NoSuchFieldError, 250
meaning, 212, 222
NoSuchMethodError, 247, 253, 260, 334
meaning, 212, 222
OutOfMemoryError, 163, 213, 219, 227, 228, 304, 314, 315, 316, 319, 336
meaning, 212
StackOverflowError, meaning, 212
ThreadDeath, 595, 611
UnknownError, meaning, 212
UnsatisfiedLinkError, 583, 584, 611
meaning, 222
VerifyError, 255, 260
meaning, 212, 220
VirtualMachineError, 212, 611
standard (unchecked runtime)
ArithmeticException, 304, 307, 354
meaning, 209
ArrayStoreException, 199, 304, 371, 374, 584
meaning, 209
ClassCastException, 304, 351, 371, 69
casting conversion requirements that can result in, 69
ClassCastException, meaning, 209
EmptyStackException, 662
declaration, 663
meaning, 209
IllegalArgumentException, 597, 607, 625, 631, 744, 745
meaning, 209
exceptions
standard (unchecked runtime)
IllegalMonitorStateException, 461, 462, 463
meaning, 209
IllegalThreadStateException, 562, 592, 593, 594, 597, 606
meaning, 209
IndexOutOfBoundsException, 195, 304, 342, 371, 376, 533, 534, 536, 543, 546, 551, 552, 553, 555, 556, 557, 559, 564, 565, 584, 655, 656, 657, 659, 660, 668, 675, 681, 685, 688, 690, 693, 695, 697, 701, 708, 711, 720, 723, 726, 731, 733, 735, 736, 737, 739, 746, 747, 749
meaning, 209
NegativeArraySizeException, 550
meaning, 209
NoSuchElementException, 617, 657
declaration, 664
meaning, 209
NullPointerException, 197, 204, 304, 335, 342, 343, 344, 371, 376, 507, 514, 533, 534, 536, 538, 539, 540, 541, 542, 543, 544, 546, 552, 553, 555, 559, 560, 565, 584, 595, 604, 633, 634, 668, 675, 677, 678, 680, 681, 685, 688, 690, 693, 695, 697, 701, 703, 708, 711, 720, 723, 726, 730, 731, 733, 735, 736, 737, 739, 740, 742, 746, 747, 749, 753, 754
meaning, 209
NumberFormatException, 489, 492, 493, 499, 500, 504, 511
meaning, 209
RuntimeException, 208, 371
SecurityException, 558, 563, 564, 565, 571, 572, 573, 574, 575, 576, 577, 578, 580, 581, 582, 583, 584, 592, 593, 595, 596, 597, 603, 604, 606, 607, 684, 685, 722, 723, 744, 745, 755, 756, 757, 758
meaning, 209
standard, 209
synchronization integrated with mechanism for handling, 202
Throwable class, 611
thrown for, narrowing reference conversions, 59
uncaughtException method, when invoked, 202
execution
See also declarations; evaluation; initialization; linking; loading
(chapter), 215
exec method, of class Runtime, 564
order, thread rules, 403
of statements for their effect, 263
exists method
of class File, 755
exit
exit method
of class Runtime, 563
of class System, 582
exitValue method, of class Process, 562
virtual machine, criteria for, 235
expressions
See also fields; methods; statements
abrupt completion of, as reason for abrupt statement completion, 265
additive operators
evaluation, 355
for numeric types, evaluation, 358
array
access, evaluation, 341
assignment, evaluation, 370, 375
creation, evaluation of, 315
assignment
conversion, 61
definite assignment, 391
operators, evaluation, 369
as statements, 272
bitwise
binary operators, evaluation, 365
complement, evaluation, 349
boolean
assignment, definite assignment, 390
constant, definite assignment, 386
operators
!, definite assignment, 387
!=, definite assignment, 389
&, definite assignment, 387
&&, definite assignment, 386
==, definite assignment, 389
? :, definite assignment, 389
^, definite assignment, 388
|, definite assignment, 388
||, definite assignment, 387
equality, evaluation, 364
logical, evaluation, 365
boolean-valued, definite assignment, 386
cast, evaluation, 350
(chapter), 301
expressions
compound, assignment operators, evaluation, 375
conditional
and operator &&, evaluation, 366
operator ? :
definite assignment, 390
evaluation, 367
or operator ||, evaluation, 367
definite assignment and, 386
division, evaluation, 352
equality operators, evaluation, 363
field access, evaluation of, 319
instance creation
evaluation of, 314
as statements, 272
integer bitwise operators, evaluation, 366
LALR(1) grammar productions, 450
logical
comparison operators, evaluation, 365
complement !, evaluation, 350
method invocation
evaluation, 323
evaluation order, 333
as statements, 272
multiplication *, evaluation, 351
multiplicative operators *, /, &, evaluation, 351
names
context in which a name is classified as, 91
qualified, meaning of, 96
simple, meaning of, 95
numeric
comparison, evaluation, 361
equality operators, evaluation, 363
operators
++, definite assignment, 392
--, definite assignment, 392
precedence, evaluation, 308
parenthesized
evaluation of, 313
evaluation of, precedence effect of, 308
post-decrement --
evaluation of, 345
as statements, 272
post-increment ++
evaluation of, 345
as statements, 272
postfix, evaluation, 344
pre-decrement --
evaluation of, 348
as statements, 272
expressions
pre-increment ++
evaluation of, 348
as statements, 272
primary, evaluation of, 311
See also arrays, access expressions; arrays, creation; fields, access expressions; instance, creation; literals; expressions, parenthesized; methods, invocations; this keyword
reference equality operators ==, !=, evaluation, 364
relational operators <, >, <=, >=, evaluation, 361
remainder %, evaluation, 353
run-time checks of, 302
semantics and evaluation rules, (chapter), 301
shift operators <<, >>, >>>, evaluation, 359
simple assignment operator =, evaluation, 370
statements
definite assignment, 394
specification, 272
string concatenation +, evaluation, 355
superclass access, evaluation, 322
type
comparison instanceof, evaluation, 362
how determined, 47
usage in, 43
vs. class of object, 47
unary
minus -, evaluation, 349
operators, evaluation, 346
plus +, evaluation, 349
values, variables as, 302
extends clause
See also classes; implements; object-oriented concepts
in class declaration, specifying direct superclasses with, 133
in interface declaration, 185

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Java Language Specification (HTML generated by Suzette Pelouch on February 24, 1998)
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